In “A Hollywood Mystery: When Film’s Greatest Honor Went Unclaimed,” The New York Times takes an in-depth look at the case of Robert Rich, the screenwriter who won the 1957 Academy Award® for Writing (Motion Picture Story) despite no one in Hollywood seeming to know who he was. Of course, in hindsight we now know that Robert Rich was the alias for Dalton Trumbo, one of the "Hollywood Ten" blacklisted and imprisoned for alleged ties to communism.
As the New York Times explains:
After his sentence, Trumbo set about returning to work. He and nine others would become known as the Hollywood Ten. They worked in secret under pseudonyms and other means to write scripts for the very studios that, under pressure from Congress and public opinion, had banned them.
Be sure to visit http://nytimes.com/trumbo to read original news stories and watch video footage of an interview with Dalton Trumbo sharing his experience of writing in secret while blacklisted.